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Lighting Technical Information

Technical information and resolve doubts about the world of lighting and light decor. 

  

» ¿What types of lamp or bases that exist?

» ¿What is the color temperature and what tones can have a lamp?

» ¿How to measure the power of a lamp? and what is the ideal for long stay?

» ¿What is the color rendering index (CRI)?

» Terminology of the lighting world

 


Technical Information.

» What types of lamp or bases there? 

The foundations of a lamp or lamp or bulb is normally defined by a letter-number format. The first letter designates the shape of the base, the numbers represent either the width of the base or the distance between the pins. The numbers are typically in millimeters. The second letter designates the number of pins or contacts on the lamp.

 

Bushes most used

 

E14

Used in small bulbs, especially bulbs, such as sailing or spherical

E27

The most widespread in Europe. Incandescent, compact fluorescent, metal halide, etc.

E40

Like the E14 and E27 but designed to withstand higher power

GU10

Dichroic halogen, LED, etc.

R7s

Straight linear halogen bulbs

GU4

Greater use halogen bulbs and halogen dichroic


MR16

Greater use halogen bulbs and halogen dichroic

 

G53

Reflection parabola Halogen Wide

 

G9

Halogen bulbs

 

 

G4

Halogen bulbs

 

 

 

GY6,35

Halogen bulbs

 

 

G5

Halogen bulbs 

 

G13 pequeño

Used in fluorescent tubes

 

G13

Used in fluorescent tubes

 

G10q

Used in circular tubes

 

2GX13

Used in circular tubes

 

2G13

For double fluorescent

 

G23

Used in light bulbs

 

G24q

Used in light bulbs

 

G24d


Used in light bulbs

GX24d

Used in light bulbs

 

GX24q

Used in light bulbs

 

2G7

Used in light bulbs

2G11

Increased use light bulbs in double

 

 

Lamp types

E- - Edison Screw type
B or BA - Swan cap or bayonet type
C - Contact pressure circular pipe
G - Contact by simple pressure clamps
GX - Contact reinforced by pressure clamps
GU - Contact by terminals to protect bulbs with rear heat emission
GZ - Contact by clamps for high output bulbs rear heat
R - straight sleeves with simple terminal lamps
RX - lamps straight sleeves with reinforced terminals
Fa - straight sleeves with male terminal lamps
Diameter of lamp
10 mm - Miniature Lamps
11 mm - Energy-saving lamps
12 mm - type bi-pin lamps
13 mm - Fluorescent tube
14 mm - small Edison Screw, sailing
15 mm - Lamp straight
27 mm - Thread standard Edison
40 mm - Giant Edison Screw
Number of contacts
S - Contact single
D - Double contact
Q - Contact quad

Diameter of lamp

10 mm – Lámparas miniatura
11 mm – Lámparas de bajo consumo
12 mm – Lámparas tipo bi-pin
13 mm – Tubos fluorescentes
14 mm – Rosca Edison pequeña, vela
15 mm – Lámparas rectilíneas
27 mm – Rosca Edison estándar
40 mm – Rosca Edison gigante

Number of contacts

S - Contact single
D - Double contact
Q - Contact quad

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» ¿What is the color temperature and lamp shades can have? 

It is a description of the warmth or coolness of a light source. This temperature or tone of a lamp is measured in degrees Kelvin.




By convention, yellow and red colors (like the flames of a fire) are considered warm colors, and green-blue (like the light of an overcast sky) are considered cool. In this sense, if a lampra has a high value of degrees Kelvin or temperature (3600-5500 K) we consider cold and if lower (2700-3000 K) consider them warm. Normally cold light is preferred for visual tasks because it produces higher contrast than warm light while warm light is preferred for living spaces and interior, as it is more welcoming.


 

Keep in mind that the color temperature has nothing to do with the light source to produce heat or not. We talked about the psychological reaction produced in our brains to find this key illuminated environment.

 

 

Examples of color temperatures (Kelvin)

Fire Candlelight or combustion between 1.200ky makes 1.800k
Sunrise / Sunset between 2,000 K and 2.200k
Incandescent lamps: Lamps 2800K 40w between 2.600ky
Dichroic lamps and halogen between 3000K 2.800ky
Incandescent lamps for TV studio, Film or Photography between 3.200ky 3.400k (the most used is that of 3200K)
Noonday sun (summer) 5600K
Cloudy Day between 6,000 K and 10,000 K
Dawn Lus between 8000K and 10,000 K

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» ¿How to measure the power of a lamp? and what is the ideal for long stay? 

To measure what could commonly called a lamp power we have several units of measurement.
Candela, a measurement unit for measuring the intensity of light striking an object. The lumens, which are a unit of measure for quantifying the amount of energy emitted by a light source. In other words, a candle measures the brightness of the light illuminated on the object while measuring the lumen output of said light radiating source.
Both lumens are candelas and measurement units electromagnetic radiation detectable by the human eye. Candles are used to measure "luminance", the energy density of light that reaches a reference surface at a given distance from one or more light sources. The lumens are used to measure the "luminous flux", irradiation, amount and type of energy.
A candle is based on the English system of measurements. One candela equals one lumen per square foot while according to international standards, a lux equals one lumen per square meter. The equation used to convert footcandles to lux is: 1 candle = 10.76 lux.

As for the right lighting for long stay, we could say that relates to the activity carried out in this. This parameter is called "light level" and its unit of measurement is the "lux".

We mention a number of indicative parameters to consider when lighting a project. In general we can distinguish between tasks with minimal light requirements, normal or demanding.

In the first step would be areas (hallways, lobbies, etc..) Or underutilized premises (stores, machinery room ...) with illuminance between 50 and 200 lx. In the second case we work areas and other frequently-used local luminance between 200 and 1000 lx. Finally there are the places where they are needed very high levels of illumination (1000 lx) for visual tasks are performed with a high degree of detail that can be achieved with local lighting.

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Recommended lighting levels by type:


Residential LED. Recommended Levels

Stays:

• Kitchen: General lighting 300 lux and in the cut and prepared 500-600.
• Bathroom: General lighting 200 lux, make-up or shaving: 300-500.
• Bedroom: Lighting is 100-200 lux and 500 when read.
• Children's room: 200-300 lux general lighting, where do crafts 500-750.
• Living Room: General lighting 100 lux, to watch TV and read 500 50-70.
• Stairs: minimum 100 lux general lighting.

Areas:

• Lifts, interior: 300-500 lux
• Landings: 50-250 lux
• Stairs: 100-300 lux


Commercial LED. Recommended Levels

Commercial establishments can be divided into two broad categories, depending on their size, but the lighting needs of each other is similar, especialemnte as far as lighting is concerned product.
It is also important to note that the color temperature and especially the color rendering index (Ra or Cri) are particularly important here, and it may be advisable to change it depending on the type of product to brighten, to highlight or enhance their attributes.
• General lighting: from 300 to 600 lux.
• Exterior windows: 1000 to 3000 lux
• interior windows: about 1000 lux
• Shelves of goods of 200-400 lux.
• Showcases: of 1000-3000 lux.
• Counters and cash lines: between 500 and 900 lux.


Educational Centres. Recommended Levels

The schools have specific requirements for lighting, among other things, the type of activities that they perform. Une poor lighting facilities d eun educational center, especially classrooms and spaces to teach, learning and study, can ocasioanr eyestrain, eye injuries and could even be the cause of increased rate of school failure low student performance..

• General lighting in classrooms: from 350-1000 lux.
• General lighting in classrooms and technical plastic: 500 to 1000 lux
• Gyms: 250 to 500 lux
• Laboratory of 250-1000 lux.
• Slates: of 300-700 lux.
• Conference: between 200 and 1000 lux.
• Walkways: between 150 and 700 lux.
• Changing rooms, toilets: between 50 and 300 lux.
• Libraries and study rooms: between 300 and 750 lux.


Health sector. Recommended Levels

The lighting in hospitals, consulting rooms, etc.., Must serve two fundamental objectives: to guarantee the best conditions to develop appropriate tasks, and contribute to an atmosphere in which the patient feel comfortable. Proper lighting can influence mood, and therefore, combined with other elements significantly contribute to the recovery process of the patient.

By studying lighting design a hospital, you can oservar the existence of different tasks in different espcios, which require specific treatment, as no igal Planera treat or lighting a knife, which the laundry, a living consultation or cafeteria. each space and the tasks it must develop and particulaes lighting requirements and specific.

 

• Reception and waiting rooms: 300 to 600 lux.
• consultation and examination rooms: from 400 to 1000 lux
• Operating rooms (general): from 300 to 1000 lux
• Operating rooms (operating table): from 3000 to 8000 lux.
• Laboratory of 400 to 1000 lux.
• Rooms (general): 50 to 300 lux.
• Rooms on the bed (for test or reading): between 350 and 750 lux.
• Night lights: between 10 and 50 lux.
• Dental visits on the examination chair: between 750 and 5000 lux.


Hospitality. Recommended Levels

The lighting in each scene in hospitality, defined as broadly hotels, restaurants, cafes, bars and entertainment venues, requires special treatment and approach when planning a project, because not only must take into account the lighting requirements depending on the use or acividad to develop in each room, living room, living room or bedroom, but we must also keep in mind the objectives of decoration, claim, one wishes atmosphere give the establishment, etc.

• Kitchens, offices: 350 to 750 lux.
• Dining Lounge: 100 to 600 lux
• Bedrooms (general lighting): 100 to 400 lux
• Beds, reading: of 350-600 lux.
• Reception (general lighting): 100 to 400 lux.
• Bars (in cafes and bars): 100 to 500 lux.
• Walkways: between 150 and 700 lux.
• Changing rooms, toilets: between 50 and 300 lux.
• Stairs: 100 to 350 lux.


Industry. Recommended Levels

Inadequate lighting at work can cause eyestrain, fatigue, headaches, stress and accidents. The work in low light hurt your eyes. The degree of certainty with which the job runs depends on the visual and this depends, in turn, of the quantity and quality of light. A well-lit environment is not only one who has enough light.

Not all industry-related activities and production activities require the same level of illumination. Industrial platna in one sule have different areas designated for different activities or processes, and each of them has some requirements or particular lighting needs.

• High Precision Industries, production area of 1000-5000 lux.
• Precision Industries, production area of 600-2000 lux.
• Industries ordinary production area of 300-800 lux.
• Industries rough, production area of 200-600 lux
• Workshops for small parts assembly: from 500-1200 lux.
• Workshops mounting medium pieces: from 350-1000 lux.
• Works very fine bench or machine: from 1000-3000 lux.
• Deposits and storage: 50 to 400 lux.
• Packing: 100 to 400 lux.
• Cold rooms: 100 to 250 lux.


Offices. Recommended Levels

To achieve a good visual comfort level must achieve a balance between the quantity, quality and stability of the light, so as to achieve freedom from glare and flicker, uniform illumination, no excessive contrasts etc. All this, in terms of both the visual demands of work and personal characteristics of each person. A wrong lighting can cause also of poor posture eventually generating musculoskeletal disorders.

• Work tables, administrative: 400-700 lux.
• Drafting tables, design: 600 to 1500 lux.
• Meeting, together (general lighting): 200 to 350 lux.
• Meeting, together (on the table): 400-700 lux.
• Files: 100 to 400 lux
• Walkways: 150 to 500 lux

 

» ¿What is cromátivo performance index (CRI)?  

 

The color rendering index (CRI) is a measure of the color quality of light, expressed as a score of 0-100. It was devised by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), and describes how a light source makes the color of an object appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades shown. The higher the CRI, the better its color rendering ability.

 

Imagine two objects, one red and one blue, which are illuminated by a cold light source with low CRI. The red object appear muted while the blue object appear with an intense blue. Now change the bulb and put a cold light source with a high CRI. The blue object keeps coming up with an intense blue, but the red object appear closer to their true color.

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» Terminology of the lighting world

 

Some of the terms used in the world of lighting are:
 
Acrylic: The material used in the lens attachment tends to yellow with age.
 
Alternating Current (AC): Current that changes direction of flow through a conductor, going first one way and then the other, the usual rate used is 60 vibrations per second.
 
Amps: The rate of flow of electricity along the line.
 
Argon: An inert gas element used in incandescent and fluorescent lamps. In incandescent lamps, helps retard evaporation of the tungsten filament.
 
Equipment or transformer: An electrical device which can increase or decrease the voltage in an electrical circuit alternating current, keeping power. Should be noted that this extra energy.
 
Socket or Base: Completion of a lamp that make contact with the electrical source.
 
Bulb: Layman's terms for lamp actually glass exterior shell of a lamp.
 
Color corrected: Refers to a lamp that has a special match or covering applied internally or externally to alter the natural properties of color rendering light source to be more real and close to the sunlight.
 
HID lamp High Intensity Discharge: Are mercury vapor lamps, metal halide lamps, high pressure sodium or electric discharge lamp in which stabilizes the arc that produces light by the wall temperature and tube Arc has a load of more than three watts per square centimeter.
 
High pressure sodium (HPS) lamp: High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor operating at a partial pressure.
 
High Voltage: Voltage is understood 208 and above.
 
Incandescent: First light source invented, the most common light source used today.
 
IR: The radiant energy at wavelengths that are longer than the wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Applications include photography, cooking or drying materials in industry, medical heat therapy, heating food, etc.
 
Start time: Refers to fluorescent lamps that start instantly, without preheating of the cathodes and without the need of starters.
 
KW: It is equal to 1000 watts.
 
Kilowatt / hour: One thousand watts of electrical energy consumed in one hour. For example, a 1000 watt lamp or ten 100-watt lamp lit for one hour.
 
Krypton: very heavy and inert gas allows the filament of an incandescent lamp and a warm glow brighter providing you a longer life.
 
Lamp: industry term to describe a bulb.
 
Lamp Life: rated life of each lamp is an independent laboratory has determined taken a random sample of a given type lamps and lighting it with a programmed amount of starts per day. When 50% of the lamps are turned off, is said to be the rated lamp life.
 
Objective: Covering a light fixture that controls and / or protects its inner workings. It may also be known as a reflector lamp or diffuser.
 
Lexan: Brand polycarbonate material used in the lens of a lamp is not broken and does not amarillente.
 
Low-pressure sodium (LPS) of the lamp: a discharge lamp in which the light radiation is produced by sodium vapor at a given pressure. The most efficient light source that Offers some more lumens per watt than any other source, this has a unique yellowish color.
 
Lumen: The measurement of the amount of light reaching an object.
 
Lumen maintenance: The factor used to perform the calculations for a new lighting system that takes into account the effect of the depreciation of lumens.
 
Luminaire: A luminaire is a complete lighting unit consisting of a light source together with the parts designed to distribute the light.
 
Color Rendering Index (CRI): A measure of the color quality of light, expressed as a ranking of 0-100.
 
Spectrum Color: All wavelengths of energy that the human eye can perceive.
 
Broadcast: The light scattering is called diffusion. A light transmitting material such as a white glass globe is a diffuser. A diffuser is able to scatter light in all directions.

Downlight: A small direct lighting unit that directs light downward and can be recessed, surface mounted or suspended.
 
Efficacy: The efficacy of a light source is known as luminous efficiency, which is the ratio of the total lumens produced by the source to the power consumed by the source. This relationship is expressed in lumens per watt. For example, a 100 watt lamp produces 1290 lumens. Therefore, their effectiveness is 1290/100 or 12.9 lumens per watt.
 
Apparatus efficiency: a luminaire efficiency is the ration of lumens emitted by the luminaire to the light emitted by the naked. Actually, only a portion of the lumens produced by a bare lamp reaches the work plane. The term used to describe the percentage is the coefficient of utilization (CU). For example, if a particular luminaire has CU 75, only 75% of the lumens produced by the lamp to reach the working plane. The other 25 percent is lost (absorbed) by the area of the luminaire.
 
Energy Survey: Synonymous with cost estimates, energy audit or energy saving and consist of the necessary calculations to indicate the power and cost of materials existing lighting system compared with proposed lighting system.
 
Filament spiral wire heated. The creation of light of an incandescent lamp.
 
Fluorescent: Second light source invented, the most common source used indoors or commercial installations. Is a low pressure mercury electric discharge in which a fluorescent coating (phosphorus) becomes part of the energy generated by the ultraviolet light discharge.
 
Candela: Measurement of light at a given point.

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